Work-related stress in teachers. Primary data.

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Wendt, Wolfgang


Dataset Information

Title Work-related stress in teachers. Primary data.
Original Title Beruflich bedingte Belastung von Lehrkrften. Primrdaten.
Citation Wendt, W. (2004). Work-related stress in teachers. Primary data. [Translated Title] (Version 1) [Files on CD-ROM]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID.
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Arbeitsgruppe SBL (Selbstbewertung und Beratung in der Lehrerausbildung)
Data Collection Completion Date 1993
Dataset Publication 2004
Dataset ID wtwg93be99
Study Description Main topic/questions: The structure and principle aspects of work-related stress in German teachers. Comparison of subgroups within the teaching profession in Germany (East/West, gender, school type, subject). Clarification of the types of stress load in the teaching profession.
Type: Empirical study.
Method: Written survey including a standardized questionnaire that was developed in preliminary tests. This included 56 items that measured potentially stressful situations of everyday professional life as well as sociodemographic and school-related information. Likert scale: 0 = Does not burden me 4 = Burdens me very much
Sample: A highly representative sample of 1,105 teachers.
Evaluation Methods: Total score formation, factor analysis, variance analysis, cluster analysis.
Results: The structure of work-related stress was determined by factor analysis. Cluster analysis determined the structure of the groups (teachers) while differences between subgroups of teachers were examined using variance analysis.

Factor analysis yielded 10 clear dimensions of stress (students who are destructive in word and behavior; poor infrastructure; uncooperative and moody colleagues; administrative tasks which hamper teaching duties; friction between work and home life; feeling overwhelmed by curricular demands; acute stress caused by poor working conditions; conversations with colleagues; egocentric parents; students and parents seeking personal contact with the teachers). Two aspects of this study stand out in comparison to other studies: The sample was large enough that factor analysis could be carried out in subgroups, yielding interesting relationships between the stress load structure and the content characteristics of these subgroups (East/West, age, etc.). Noteworthy are the changes in the factor structure with increasing age, which suggest burn-out syndrome. Also, a method is developed on the basis of which the factor structures can be graphically represented.

Results of the questionnaire indicated that these teachers are the most burdened by stress: women, teachers from East Berlin, teachers in primary schools, teachers of the subjects of German or art/music. Teachers with the lowest stress levels were those teaching in the lowest educational track (Hauptschule) and those who taught sports and career training. The largest burden for all teachers is students who talk out of turn and are restless in class. Also, administrative tasks and the family issues weighed heavily on teachers. Low stress values were found in the areas of colleagues, curriculum, and notably, parent interaction.

The cluster analysis of teachers revealed nine exemplary types of stress. Among the group with low-level stress, two clusters were found ("the laid back, the old hands" and "the committed, the idealists"). Only one cluster is identified among the highly stressed group that, alarmingly, compromises about 15% of the teachers. Members of this cluster feel burdened by everyone and everything.
The record contains the complete primary data of the interviewed teachers. Derived data are also provided.
Hypotheses -
Keyphrase teachers' occupational stress, 1,105 teachers in Berlin, empirical study, primary data
Funding -
Rating The questionnaire was subjected to a pretest.
Because of its size the sample was divided in 2, in terms of relevant characteristics, parallelized halves. The central analyzes, such as discriminant or factor analysis, could therefore be developed on the one half and then tested on the other.


PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Social Perception & Cognition
Professional Personnel Attitudes & Characteristics
Educational Administration & Personnel
Personnel Attitudes & Job Satisfaction
Controlled Terms Stress
Data Collection


Research Method Description

Research Method Description Questionnaire Data
Classification of Data Collection Fully Standardized Survey Instrument (provides question formulation and answer options)
Research Instrument The questionnaire covered 56 items from 7 subareas of teacher stress:
(1) exposure to students (10 Items)
(2) impact of curriculum (5 items)
(3) stress in the classroom (8 Items)
(4) exposure to parents (7 Items)
(5) burden of administrative tasks (6 Items)
(6) exposure to colleagues (9 Items)
(7) exposure to other working conditions (11 Items)
Factor analysis confirmed that within the first 6 items the burden of "other" working conditions could be allocated across the item, while 2 other item could be differentiated: stress due to lack of time and stress in the family. The items consist of declarative sentences that are to be assessed on a 5-point Likert scale.
In another part of the questionnaire training and employment related information (favorite subject, teaching major, and main teaching subject, training, current function/position, work experience, type of school) and socio-demographic data (gender, age, scope of employment, location) were collected. The items were mostly in multiple choice form.
Data Collection Method Data collection in the absence of an experimenter
- Mail Survey
Time Points single measurement
Survey Time Period Fall 1992-Spring 1993
Characteristics -
Population Teachers working in Berlin
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample Stratified, Systematic Sample
Subject Recruitment -
Sample Size 1,105 individuals
Return/Drop Out -
Gender Distribution 71,0% female subjects (n=785)
29,0% male subjects (n=320)
Age Distribution 23-64 years
Special Groups -
Country Germany
Region -
City Berlin
Variables Case number
Teaching stressors in 7 different areas
Favorite subject, teaching major, main class subject
Socio-demographic characteristics
Current position/function
Employment status
School location (East/West Berlin)
Type of school


Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Questionnaire filled out by either the subject or the experimenter containing closed and/or open answers
Transformation Subject responses were transferred into a primary data matrix using simple encoding guidelines. The data matrix (wtwg93be99_pd) is provided along with the corresponding codebook (wtwg93be99_kb).
Derived variables (total scores, factor scores, summaries, cluster affiliation) are also available along with the corresponding instructions (wtwg93be99_aa; wtwg93be99_ad).


Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary study data
File Name wtwg93be99_pd.txt
Data Content 1,105 subjects, 152 variables
Data Points 1,105*152=167,960 data points
Variables Case number (1), Teacher stress (56), Favorite subject (21), Teaching major (21), Main class subject (21), Demographic and job-related information (32)
MD5 Hash 3e51c72e4d2c7799296735a21e2933c8
Description Primary and derived study data
File Name wtwg93be99_ad.txt
Data Content 1,105 subjects, 236 variables
Data Points 1,105*236=260,780 data points
Variables Case number (1), Teacher stress (56), Favorite subject (21), Teaching major (21), Main class subject (21), Demographic and job-related information (32), Derived variables (84)
MD5 Hash b529552ac95ed8c3f460aadb37e8ea9a


Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
German codebook of primary data set wtwg93be99_pd.txt wtwg93be99_kb.txt
Transformation instruction of primary data set wtwg93be99_pd.txt wtwg93be99_aa.txt


Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Wendt, W. (1998). Beruflich bedingte Belastung von Lehrern. Eine reprsentative Befragung der Berliner Lehrerschaft. Berlin: FU (Dissertation).Datensatz 0120166
Wendt, W. (2001). Belastung von Lehrkrften. Fakten zu Schwerpunkten, Strukturen und Belastungstypen. Eine reprsentative Befragung der Berliner Lehrerschaft. Landau: Verlag Empirische Pdagogik. Datensatz 0165705
Wendt, W. (2001): Alter und Belastung. Ausma und Struktur beruflich bedingter Belastung von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern in den verschiedenen Altersgruppen. In C. Hanckel, B. Jtten & K. Seifried (Hrsg.), Schule zwischen Realitaet und Vision. Kongressbericht der 14. Bundeskonferenz 2000 in Berlin (S. 153-160). Bonn: Deutscher Psychologen Verlag.Datensatz 0149663


Further Reading

Further Reading
Barth, A.-R. (1992). Burnout bei Lehrern. Theoretische Aspekte und Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung. Gttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0068874
Grimm, M. A. (1993). Kognitive Landschaften von Lehrern. Berufszufriedenheit und Ursachenzuschreibungen angenehmer und belastender Unterrichtssituationen. Frankfurt/Main: Lang.Datensatz 0076574
Kramis-Aebischer, K. (1995). Stress, Belastungen und Belastungsverarbeitung im Lehrerberuf. Bern: Haupt.Datensatz 0090213
Rudow, B. (1994). Die Arbeit des Lehrers. Zur Psychologie der Lehrerttigkeit, Lehrerbelastung und Lehrergesundheit. Bern: Huber.Datensatz 0089747
Seelig, G.F. & Wendt, W. (1993). Lehrerbelastung. Eine Pilotstudie zu den erlebten Berufsbelastungen von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern. Paedagogik, 45, 30-32.Datensatz 0072818
Terhart, E., Czerwenka, K., Ehrich, K., Jordan, F. & Schmidt, H. J. (1994). Berufsbiographien von Lehrern und Lehrerinnen. Frankfurt/Main: Lang.


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